By Kristalyn Shefveland
Shefveland examines Anglo-Indian interactions in the course of the perception of local tributaries to the Virginia colony, with particularemphasis at the colonial and tributary and international local settlements of the Piedmont and southwestern Coastal simple among 1646 and 1722.
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Extra info for Anglo-Native Virginia: Trade, Conversion, and Indian Slavery in the Old Dominion, 1646-1722
Then another witness, Henry Tame, testified that a year before he had witnessed an 38 / Chapter Two altercation between the two women in which Elizabeth acted so violently that she bit Mrs. Wall on the chest and, in yet another incident, she had tried to shove Mrs. ” There is no mention of the cause of the altercation, nor of how Mrs. Wall responded or if she fought back. Unknown is Elizabeth’s motivation for at least two separate physical altercations against her mistress. ”72 A surreptitious trade in humans existed in Virginia despite legal and political restrictions, and Indigenous reactions to their forced labor are relevant to a better understanding of the emerging settler economy.
Lederer called Katearas a “place of great Indian trade and commerce,” where some of the women had “bedecked themselves” with copper, leading Lederer to suppose that the area might have copper mines. 80 Lederer arrived at Wood’s Appomattox settlement after being in the interior for seventeen days. He traveled to the interior for a third time in August, leaving the falls of the Rappahannock River and heading west. 81 He also gave instructions to anyone wanting to travel through the interior. According to Lederer, expeditions should provision themselves with parched corn instead of biscuits.
1 Exploration and trade would not have been successful in Virginia without the consent and cooperation of Native partnerships. Until the mid-seventeenth century, the rapids at the fall line and the hostilities between the Powhatan and piedmont Siouan-speakers prevented direct English trade in the interior, but the 1646 peace opened up new possibilities. After 1646, colonial traders began to access interior Iroquoian- and Siouan-speaking peoples with the aid of their tributary allies and new allies they cultivated among nontributary Indians of the interior.
Anglo-Native Virginia: Trade, Conversion, and Indian Slavery in the Old Dominion, 1646-1722 by Kristalyn Shefveland