Javier Jiménez's An introduction to turbulence PDF

By Javier Jiménez

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The procedure is trial and error. For a first guess, assume that NR Ϸ 105. 022. 022)(100 ft) Before computing the flow rate, we must check the Reynolds number assumption. 4 ϫ 10Ϫ5 ft2 /s) The Reynolds number is higher than the initial guess. Therefore, with this new value a second trial is performed. 2 ft/sec. 9 ϫ 105. With this new NR, the friction factor, ƒ, is found to not change significantly.

Characterize each flow as laminar or turbulent. Solution: Flow is converted to units of ft3 /s, areas are computed in units of ft2, and velocities are determined using the volume flow equation. 4 ϫ 10Ϫ5 ft2 /s The flow in the 48-inch pipe is in the transitional zone and cannot be categorized as laminar or turbulent. 4 ϫ 10Ϫ5 ft2 /s The flow in the 8-inch pipe is turbulent. This example illustrates the rarity of laminar flow occurring in typical water flow. 00883 ft/s, which is practically crawling, was not laminar flow.

In fluid flow, the three major energy forms are potential energy, kinetic energy, and static energy. They are described in terms of fluid height, also known as energy head. The term head in this application means the height of a water column necessary to replace an equivalent fluid pressure, as defined by p ϭ ␥h. 1 Potential Energy (Elevation Head) Potential energy, or energy of elevation, is that energy attributed to the position of the fluid with respect to an elevation datum. 8) where hz ϭ potential energy or elevation head (ft) z ϭ elevation of the fluid with respect to a datum (ft) Again, think of elevation energy as ft-lbs of energy per pound of water.

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An introduction to turbulence by Javier Jiménez

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