By Javier Jiménez
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Extra info for An introduction to turbulence
The procedure is trial and error. For a ﬁrst guess, assume that NR Ϸ 105. 022. 022)(100 ft) Before computing the ﬂow rate, we must check the Reynolds number assumption. 4 ϫ 10Ϫ5 ft2 /s) The Reynolds number is higher than the initial guess. Therefore, with this new value a second trial is performed. 2 ft/sec. 9 ϫ 105. With this new NR, the friction factor, ƒ, is found to not change signiﬁcantly.
Characterize each ﬂow as laminar or turbulent. Solution: Flow is converted to units of ft3 /s, areas are computed in units of ft2, and velocities are determined using the volume ﬂow equation. 4 ϫ 10Ϫ5 ft2 /s The ﬂow in the 48-inch pipe is in the transitional zone and cannot be categorized as laminar or turbulent. 4 ϫ 10Ϫ5 ft2 /s The ﬂow in the 8-inch pipe is turbulent. This example illustrates the rarity of laminar ﬂow occurring in typical water ﬂow. 00883 ft/s, which is practically crawling, was not laminar ﬂow.
In ﬂuid ﬂow, the three major energy forms are potential energy, kinetic energy, and static energy. They are described in terms of ﬂuid height, also known as energy head. The term head in this application means the height of a water column necessary to replace an equivalent ﬂuid pressure, as deﬁned by p ϭ ␥h. 1 Potential Energy (Elevation Head) Potential energy, or energy of elevation, is that energy attributed to the position of the ﬂuid with respect to an elevation datum. 8) where hz ϭ potential energy or elevation head (ft) z ϭ elevation of the ﬂuid with respect to a datum (ft) Again, think of elevation energy as ft-lbs of energy per pound of water.
An introduction to turbulence by Javier Jiménez