By Silvio Garattini and Parkhurst A. Shore (Eds.)
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B. Route and frequencp of drug administration. Compounds should be administered by the same route as projected for the therapeutic use in humans. If a drug is to be tested both orally and parenterally, the parenteral toxicity trial can often be shortened to about one-third of the oral study. Repeated injections of large amounts of a drug often cause severe tissue irritation and obliteration of the veins. ) route, and if a drug is very irritating, the experiment should be terminated before chronic peritonitis or subcutaneous necrosis cause severe, nonspecific damage to blood and tissue.
From these few examples it is quite obvious that the principle of testing drugs in animals of both sexes is not merely a matter of tradition and economy, but definitely ‘widens‘ the scope of the toxicity experiment. C. 59; Michael and Sutherland, 1961). Since this is probably also true for man, the investigation of drug toxicity and drug m e t a b o l i s ~in various age groups becomed a matter of consider- DBUQ TOXICITY 39 able practical significance. A few data obtained in animal experiments may illustrate the complexity of the problem.
Studer and B. ) ber of similar drugs. It is obvious that the LD,, did not a t all reflect toxicity encountered after repeated administration. 3. Chronic Toxicity In designing a chronic toxicity experiment, it is of prime importance to consider the intended use and the chemical and pharmacological properties of the substance t o be tested. Industrial solvents, food and feed additives, insecticides, cosmetics, emulsifiers, and other chemicals, pose many specific problems and so does every new drug which is given to the toxicologist.
Advances in Pharmacology by Silvio Garattini and Parkhurst A. Shore (Eds.)