By S. Betzelt, S. Bothfeld
This e-book analyzes in what means activation rules influence on given styles of social citizenship that predominate in nationwide contexts. It argues that the liberal paradigm of activation brought into labour marketplace regulations in all Western ecu states demanding situations the categorical styles of social citizenship in every one state.
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Extra resources for Activation and Labour Market Reforms in Europe: Challenges to Social Citizenship
The main argument here is that the welfare state change actually affects the core workers or seeming ‘insiders’ more than it perhaps seems at ﬁrst glance, as the core worker status as such is eroding in many respects, at least in the so-called Bismarckian countries (see Chapters 6 and 7 in this volume). Another important argument is that conservative corporatist welfare states have never been as encompassing as the proponents of dualization suggest. Status divides according to employment status are constitutive to these welfare systems, and hence the systems were always excluding large portions of the population, women ﬁrst of all.
4. Critical aspects in the analysis of activation reforms The crucial point of this paradigm change is that the speciﬁc implicit work ethic, which reﬂects only a narrow fraction of our ethical understanding of social life, has become the predominating organizational principle in social policy (Dean, 2007). The social norm of work commitment or reciprocity, though in many respects only vaguely deﬁned, has been transferred into ‘hard law’. Consequently, the latitude to realize alternative patterns of social behaviour or life circumstances has been restricted for all citizens, not only for the most needy.
Limited and generally accepted status differences – or a certain degree of social equality – clearly enhance basic solidarity between different social groups (Larsen, 2008). In any case, social policy provision shapes the social structure of societies (Esping-Andersen, 1990), determines the citizen’s capacity to ﬁnd her place in society and reﬂects a certain pattern of (in)equality. Low barriers between social statuses, as in the Nordic countries, reﬂect a more egalitarian normative basis of a welfare state.
Activation and Labour Market Reforms in Europe: Challenges to Social Citizenship by S. Betzelt, S. Bothfeld