By Heike Kahlert, Fritz Scholz

ISBN-10: 364237901X

ISBN-13: 9783642379017

ISBN-10: 3642379028

ISBN-13: 9783642379024

Understanding acid-base equilibria made effortless for college students in chemistry, biochemistry, biology, environmental and earth sciences. fixing chemical difficulties, be it in schooling or in actual lifestyles, usually calls for the knowledge of the acid-base equilibria in the back of them. in response to a long time of educating event, Heike Kahlert and Fritz Scholz current a strong software to fulfill such demanding situations. they supply an easy consultant to the basics and functions of acid-base diagrams, averting advanced arithmetic. This textbook is richly illustrated and has complete colour all through. It bargains studying positive aspects reminiscent of boxed effects and a set of formulae.

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**Extra resources for Acid-Base Diagrams**

**Example text**

49) can at most be 10À13 mol LÀ1 (see the crossing point P3). Since 10À13 mol LÀ1 is negligible compared with 10À1 mol LÀ1 (the H3 Oþ concentration formed in the reaction of HCl with water), the crossing point P1 gives accurately the pH of the solution, and it holds that cH3 Oþ % cBÀ (64) Hence, the pH of the solution can be found on the pH scale at the crossing point of the H3 Oþ and the ClÀ lines, because the concentration of HCl is negligible in the pH range 0–14. Hence, it is possible to neglect cHB relative to cBÀ in Eq.

8 Â 10À12 mol LÀ1 (cf. , it is negligible with respect to the concentration of HB at the point P1. Hence, the Eq. (62) can be simplified to yield the relationship equation (78): cHB % cOHÀ (78) 50 4 The Application of pH-logci Diagrams for. . Fig. 25) From this follows that the pH-coordinate of the crossing point of the OHÀ and HB lines gives a very good estimate of the real pH of the solution. ) In cases where the concentration of the base is so small that the relationship equation (78) does not hold anymore, the cubic equation (63) has to be solved.

This figure demonstrates that there is only a very small area in which no simplified equation can be used, and the cubic equation (59) has to be solved. a b Fig. 47 (a) Validity ranges of the simplified equations (70), (77), (93), and (98). (b) Validity range of the simplified equation (66).

### Acid-Base Diagrams by Heike Kahlert, Fritz Scholz

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