Lorenza Saitta, Jean-Daniel Zucker's Abstraction in Artificial Intelligence and Complex Systems PDF

By Lorenza Saitta, Jean-Daniel Zucker

▓ Book's spouse Website
http://www.abstractionthebook.com

▓ Abstraction is a basic mechanism underlying either human and synthetic conception, illustration of data, reasoning and studying. This mechanism performs a vital position in lots of disciplines, significantly laptop Programming, normal and synthetic imaginative and prescient, complicated structures, man made Intelligence and computer studying, artwork, and Cognitive Sciences. This publication first offers the reader with an summary of the notions of abstraction proposed in numerous disciplines by way of evaluating either commonalities and variations. After discussing the characterizing homes of abstraction, a proper version, the KRA version, is gifted to trap them. This version makes the concept of abstraction simply appropriate through the creation of a suite of abstraction operators and abstraction styles, reusable throughout diverse domain names and functions. it's the influence of abstraction in synthetic Intelligence, complicated structures and laptop studying which creates the middle of the publication. A normal framework, in response to the KRA version, is gifted, and its pragmatic strength is illustrated with 3 case reviews: Model-based analysis, Cartographic Generalization, and studying Hierarchical Hidden Markov Models.
∙ Collects, describes and compares a variety of methods to abstraction proposed within the literature of varied fields
∙ Discusses why abstraction performs a key position in AI artifacts, utilizing concrete examples, reminiscent of cartographic generalization and human/robot interaction
∙ offers a conceptualization framework to layout powerful systems

▒ Book's Preface
When we began scripting this publication we have been conscious of the complexity of the task,
but we didn't think that it'll take us virtually 3 years to accomplish it.
Furthermore, throughout the research and comparability of the literature from different
fields, it sincerely emerged that very important effects were accomplished, yet that much
more very important ones are nonetheless out of succeed in. Then, the spirit of the e-book replaced, by
itself, from the meant overview of the prior to a stimulus for the longer term. We
would feel free if the reader, rather than being content material with the guidelines we propose,
would take them as a motivation and start line to move past them.
We current a wide choice of works on abstraction in numerous disciplines;
nonetheless many suitable contributions to the sector were inevitably left out,
owing to the sheer quantity of pages they might fill. We make an apology for the missing
citations.
In this publication we current a version of abstraction, the KRA version, yet this can be not
the middle of the ebook. It has a constrained scope and serves major reasons: on the
one hand it exhibits that numerous past proposals of abstraction theories have a
common root and will be dealt with inside of a unified framework, and, at the different, it
offers a computational surroundings for appearing abstraction via making use of a suite of
available, domain-independent operators (programs). actually, there's nonetheless a gap
between basic abstraction theories, usually dependent logical formulations of representation
changes, and urban techniques that seriously depend on particular domain
characteristics. The KRA version is intended to be whatever in among: the
domain-independence of the abstraction operators achieves either generality (it can
cover a huge spectrum of functions and alertness domains), and synergy (by
instantiating in several contexts a few code written only one time).
Independently of the version, we think that the fundamental principles on which it relies
are extra vital than the version itself. those principles are definitely controversial; some
reader may possibly imagine that our view of abstraction is strictly what he/she has always
looked for, while another may perhaps imagine that abstraction is completely something
else. either reactions are welcome: what issues is to set off curiosity within the subject
and stimulate extra research.
The e-book isn't really meant to be a textbook: it really is specific to scientists operating on
or utilizing abstraction thoughts, with out difficulty of fields. computing device scientists,
Artificial Intelligence researchers, artists, cognitive scientists, mathematicians, and curious minds can learn the booklet. a few components are extra formalized, and so they may
look advanced at the start sight. although, we think that the best a part of the
content is graspable via intuition.

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Sample text

The use of non-figurative patterns is not new, as many of them appear on pottery and textiles from pre-historical times. However, these patterns were elements of decoration, and did not have necessarily the ambition to be called “art”. A great impulse to the abandon of faithfulness to reality, especially in painting, was given by the advent of photography. In fact, paintings were also intended to transmit to posterity the faces of important persons, or memories of historical events. Actually, a complex interplay exists among figurative works, abstract works, and photography.

The idea behind Husserl’s theory is that number abstraction is a counting process that forgets about any property or relation involving objects, leaving them as just unities to be counted. This idea was similar to Cantor’s description of the counting process [88]. Cantor was a mathematician whose ideas Frege strongly opposed. Actually, there is the suspect that Frege’s attack to Husserl was covertly targeted to Cantor himself [408]. In fact, Frege accused Cantor of using the verb to abstract with a psychological connotation, which is to be avoided in Mathematics.

6 Cognition 33 Abstraction as a representation of a category is contrasted by Barsalou with the exemplar representation. In this context, abstraction is intended as a synthesis of common properties associated to a category, as opposed to the memorization of a set of concrete exemplars of the category itself. The two representations are compared in terms of information storage, revision, and loss, and in terms of types of processing that they support. The interesting conclusion of the study is that the two representations are not distinguishable on the basis of empirical findings [34].

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Abstraction in Artificial Intelligence and Complex Systems by Lorenza Saitta, Jean-Daniel Zucker


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